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Apportionment:  The calculation of how many members in the U.S. House of Representatives each state should have based on the stateís population as a percentage (portion) of the total national population.  The larger the stateís population, the more congressional representatives it is allowed.  (By contrast, each state has two U.S. senators.) 

Black Codes:  Enacted in 1865-1866 by Southern state legislatures newly elected under the lenient Reconstruction policies of President Andrew Johnson, the laws restricted the rights and freedoms of blacks.  The Black Codes were similar to Slave Codes, which existed before the abolition of slavery, and were meant to keep the newly freed slaves dependent on plantation owners, who were their former masters.  The discriminatory laws varied from state to state, but included requiring proof of employment, limiting jobs opportunities, prohibiting property rights in or migration to certain (usually urban) areas, banning the carrying of weapons in public, barring jury duty or court testimony against whites, and withholding voting and office-holding rights.   

Congressional Reconstruction:  The policies of the U.S. Congress related to incorporating the former Confederate states back into full and equal participation in the federal union of the United States.  Congress took control of the Reconstruction process from President Andrew Johnson with the passage of the First Reconstruction Act on March 2, 1867. 

Disfranchisement:  To prevent or remove the right to vote.

Enfranchisement:  To grant the right to vote.

Franchise:  The right to vote, or the voting ballot itself.

Moderate Republican:  A member of the Republican Party who supported some rights for former slaves, though often stopping short of full racial equality under the law, and who advocated some punishment of former Confederates, such as debt repudiation, but not plans to confiscate and redistribute the land of wealthy ex-Confederates.  President Andrew Johnsonís policies, vetoes, rhetoric, and uncooperative nature combined to alienate moderates, who then joined with radical Republicans to enact a Congressional Reconstruction program. 

Presidential Reconstruction:  The policies of Presidents Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson related to incorporating the former Confederate states back into full and equal participation in the federal union of the United States. 

Radical Republican:  A member of the Republican Party who supported Reconstruction policies that were more comprehensive and punitive than those advocated by moderate or conservative politicians.  Some radicals, for example, argued that the former Confederacy should be treated as conquered territory for which Congress would dictate terms for Reconstruction, such as the confiscation of Confederate property, disfranchisement of former Confederates, and voting rights for black men.  Congressional Reconstruction was a compromise between radical and moderate Republicans.

Suffrage:  The right to vote.

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